The twisted pair configurations as shown in fig. 13.2 provides good low frequency shielding. Undesired signals tend to be coupled equally into eachline of the pair. A differential receiver will therefore completely cancel the interference.
According to P. Lefferson  the characteristic impedance and effective dielectric constant of a twisted pair can be calculated as follows.
whereas is the pitch angle of the twist; the angle between the twisted pair's center line and the twist. It was found to be optimal for to be between 20and 45. denotes the twists per length. Eq. (13.9) is valid for film insulations, for the softer PTFE material it should be modified as follows.
Assuming air as dielectric around the wires yields 1's replacing in eq. (13.8). The wire's total length before twisting in terms of the number of turns is
The propagation constant of a general transmission line is given by
Using some transformations of the formula gives an expression with and without the angular frequency.
For high frequencies eq.(13.13) can be approximated to
Thus the real part of the propagation constant yields
the expression in eq.(13.15) can be written as
whereas denotes the conductor losses and the dielectric losses.
The sheet resistance R' of a transmission line conductor is given by
whereas is the specific resistance of the conductor material and the effective area of the conductor perpendicular to the propagation direction. At higher frequencies the area of the conductor is reduced by the skin effect. The skin depth is given by
Thus the effective area of a single round wire yields
whereas denotes the radius of the wire. This means the overall conductor attenuation constant for a single wire gives
The dielectric losses are determined by the dielectric loss tangent.
the equation (13.22) can be rewritten to
whereas denotes the phase velocity, the speed of light, the effective dielectric constant and the freespace wavelength. With these expressions at hand it is possible to find a formula for the dielectric losses of the transmission line.
Transmission losses consist of conductor losses, dielectric losses as well as radiation losses. The above expressions for the conductor and dielectric losses are considered to be first order approximations. The conductor losses have been derived for a single round wire. The overall conductor losses due to the twin wires must be doubled. The dielectric losses can be used as is. Radiation losses are neglected.