The characteristic impedance of a coaxial line can be calculated as follows:
Overall losses in a coaxial cable consist of dielectric and conductor losses. The dielectric losses compute as follows:
The conductor (i.e. ohmic) losses are specified by
with denoting the sheet resistance of the conductor material, i.e. the skin resistance
In normal operation a signal wave passes through the coaxial line as a TEM wave with no electrical or magnetic field component in the direction of propagation. Beyond a certain cutoff frequency additional (unwanted) higher order modes are excited.