An AC voltage source in the time-domain is characterized by its frequency , the initial phase and the amplitude . During amplitude modulation the modulation level must be considered. The output voltage of the source is determined by the following equation.
The appropriate MNA matrix entries during the transient analysis decribing a simple linear operation can be written as
The phase modulated AC source is also characterized by the frequency , the amplidude and by an initial phase . The output voltage in the time-domain is determinded by the following equation
whereas denotes the modulation index and the modulating voltage.
The component is non-linear in the frequency- as well in the time-domain. In order to prepare the source for subsequent Newton-Raphson iterations the derivative
is required. With this at hand the MNA matrix entries of the PM modulated AC voltage source during the transient analysis can be written as