In microwave circuits described by scattering parameters, it is advantageous to regard noise as noise waves [5]. The noise characteristics of an n-port is then defined completely by one outgoing noise wave at each port (see 2-port example in fig. 2.1) and the correlation between these noise sources. Therefore, mathematically, you can characterize a noisy n-port by its scattering matrix and its noise wave correlation matrix .

Where is the time average of and is the conjugate complex of . Noise correlation matrices are hermitian matrices because the following equations hold.

Im Im | (2.2) |

(2.3) |

Where Im is the imaginary part of and is the magnitude of .

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